As Main Examination has conventional questions thus it needs broadening of knowledge-base and opinion formation, and impressive presentation . More so ideas and views cannot be presented well unless and until one retains well.
Answer writing practice is immensely important for the Main Examination, however for that a degree of exam preparation is needed. As a large part of questions are based on current inspired topics thus one should keep track.
Its broader segments are Modern History, World History, Culture , Art, Architecture, Social Issues and Geography .
Its broader segments are Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations.
Its broader segments are Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
It is on Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude and Case Studies on issues in theses parts.
This part is based on modern history, freedom struggle, art, architecture, post-independence consolidation, world history, etc. As world history is broad thus it needs focused reading of relevant areas.
This part is based on issues of Indian society, diversity in India, role of women’s organisations, population, poverty, urbanisation, effect of globalisation on Indian society, social empowerment, communism, regionalism, secularism, etc.
This part includes features of world physical geography, distribution of key natural resources across the world, factors affecting location of industries, geophysical phenomenon such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic activity, cyclone, etc.
Basic polity and Constitution includes Constitutional provisions, Constitutional-political issues, Union and States, separation of powers, comparison of Indian Constitution with that of other countries, legislature, executive and judiciary, Representation of People Act, Constitutional, statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies, etc.
Social Justice includes welfare schemes, laws and institutions for for vulnerable sections, development and management of social sector, issues relating to poverty and hunger, etc. Governance is on governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, citizens charters, transparency and accountability, institutional and other measures, civil service in a democracy, etc.
This part includes India and its neighbourhood, bilateral relations and global groupings, effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, important international institutions/agencies, etc.
This parts includes planning, resource mobilisation, growth, development, employment, government budgeting, cropping patterns, irrigation, transport, agriculture, farm subsidies, public distribution system, technology missions, food processing, land reforms, effects of liberalisation, infrastructure, investment models, etc.
This part includes developments in science & technology and effects on everyday life, achievements of Indians in science & technology, indigenisation of technology, advancements in the field of IT, Space, robotics, nano-technology, intellectual property rights, etc.
This part includes conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment, etc.
This part incudes disaster and disaster management.
This part includes development and spread of extremism, external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security, challenges to internal security through communication networks, cyber security, management of border areas, various security forces, etc.
This part tests candidates‘ attitude on integrity, probity in public life, problem solving approach, ethics and human interface, human values, attitude, aptitude, emotional intelligence, moral thinkers, civil service values and ethics in Public Administration, Probity in Governance - Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Citizens’ Charters, etc. And Case Studies on these issues.
While General Studies tests the broader awareness of a candidate in multiple domains with a current perspective, the Optional Subject tests the deeper intellectual ability in a more defined domain with a choice to a candidate. More defined syllabus proves a boon for a candidate in preparation and performance.
Out of 9 Papers of Mains written, two papers , one on Indian Language, & two on General English are only qualifying in nature. So out of 7 Papers of Mains written two Papers are of optional which carry 250 marks each or a total of 500, out of 1750 marks of Mains written taken for ranking (+275 of Interview).
Optional subject needs relatively deeper insight, thus one should look to the right aptitude for it. Besides, one should pay attention to time needed, availability of study material, coaching and support, syllabus, trends of questions in the exam, etc. If there is some overlapping with a part of General Studies, that is an added advantage.
Some subjects require more updation and impressive writing skills thus one should look to that. One can also consider how far the earlier knowledge even before the start of preparation for the exam can help in boosting up its preparation and saving time.
One should be able to retain interest in the subject in order to perform well in the two papers of the optional subject. The optional subject which better suits or fits a candidate is a more important factor, rather then placing so high importance to the high popularity of the subject.
Yet some subjects are more scientific and technical in nature, thus a candidate newer for them may have to be careful while choosing optional subject or even may have to avoid them.
There are a large number of optional subjects available in the Main Examination, from amongst which one can choose an optional subjects.
There are various language literature subjects as well from which one can choose, if one has needed interest and aptitude for any of these language literature subjects.
Some subjects which are not available, one can look to the resembling subject with much overlapping syllabus. But this may help considerably in part of syllabus, however a part of the syllabus may still be considerably new for a candidate in that optional.
While looking at the list of the optional subjects, a candidate can easily eliminate quite a few of them which don’t fit one. Then after, through further analysing the needs, one can further narrow the choice, then one can finally compare the few probable optionals and choose right optional subject for the Mains.
What-so-ever, the time needed for preparing the optional subject as per the needs and standards of the Main Examination one quite important factor, that possibly is one important reason apart from some others, that still a large number of candidates opt for optional subject from humanities and social sciences.
Essay Paper in the Main Examination is for 250 marks, and its marks are included in 1750 those marks of Mains written which are taken for final selection and ranking (+275 of interview). And there are significant variations in Essay Paper marks of candidates qualifying Main Examination.
One needs to write two essays in the in this Paper, one essay each from the two sections in the Paper. As one needs to write concise , organised and effective essay with exact expression thus there is a need to develop writing skills and do writing practice, which may even help elsewhere in the Main written.
There are a wide range of topics from which traditional or contemporary issues appear in the essay paper say Social, Cultural, Philosophical, Historical, Political, Administrative, Scientific, Economic, etc. So essay preparation overlaps with preparation of General Studies, or even some optional subjects.
As instructed length length of each essay in the exam is 1000 - 1200 words, thus one needs to prepare issues thoroughly. For effective and exact expression there should be clarity in ideas and outlook. This orientation in thinking and analysis helps in broader aspects of the preparation for the examination.
rDNA or Recombinant -DNA Technology denotes artificially combining DNAs from two or more different organisms so as to create new DNA molecule. So such a combination can lead to creation of some new traits non-existent earlier.
Derived from pathogen, it stimulates the immune system so as to fight that pathogen thus it prevents diseases for example COVID-19 vaccination.
Much useful for patients suffering from diabetes, earlier it was manufactured out of pig or cow pancreas, now there are much advancements.
GM -crops say GM-cotton or others help in improving productivity and with better nutritional value, are part of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), a possible solution for likely food crisis due to increasing population.
GM-Animals are also a sort of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), and movement continued along with GM-Crops, and may expand further in future.
r-DNA Technology is of much use in Bio-Technology and Genetic Engineering, which are important technological revolutions now in the Life Sciences.
There are its broad medicinal usage in Gene-therapy, antibiotics production, drug metabolism investigation and beyond that, thus leading to more advancements in medicines.
Molecular Computing with use of Bio-chip based on rDNA Technology using Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine for memory is other important technological revolution coming up.
It has also proved useful for disease control through efforts such as for mosquito control, and it is expected will go a long way in prevention and control of diseases.
As the population of the world increases but there are limitations of land size, thus efforts are needed GM-crops or other efforts for improved productivity and increased nutritional value.